Annual Forum Papers

TIPS/DPRU/Cornell University Forum 2004: African Development and Poverty Reduction – The Macro-Micro Linkage (54)

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Peter Glick; Francois Roubard
  • Countries and Regions Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa)
This study seeks to understand the labor market (employment and earnings) and gender impacts of the dramatic recent expansion of the export processing zone (the Zone Franche) in urban Madagascar. It is distinguished from most earlier empirical analysis of this subject by its use of micro data collected annually over…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Nathan Okurut; Andrie Schoombee; Servaas van der Berg
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Uganda is one of the few African countries which has experienced quite substantial growth in the period since 1990. Growth of GDP has been estimated at 6.9% per annum for the period 1990-2002, compared to only 2.6% for all African countries and Ugandas own far weaker performance of 2.9% in…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Seeraj Mohammed; Kade Finnoff
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Capital flight is a serious problem for South Africa, which if not addressed will continue to impede its ability to deal with structural issues such as high unemployment and concentration of wealth. This paper presents an estimate of the wealth that left South Africa in the form of capital flight…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Farah Pirouz
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Recent studies using South African household survey data have questioned the exogeneity of household size and composition from income flows and labour market outcomes. (Maitra and Ray, 2001, and Klasen and Woolard, 2000). Research on unemployment in South Africa has occasionally viewed the household as either an important source of…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Martine Visser; Trudi Hartzenberg
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Trade liberalisation has a significant impact on firm-market dynamics in a regional context. The purpose of this paper is to use an industrial organisation framework, focusing on the analytical units, the firm and the market, to assess the impact of trade liberalisation within the Southern African region, SADC. It is…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Neren Rau
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
This paper describes the status of financial systems for a number of African countries south of the Sahara, identifying various problems that hinder access to finance, especially for the poor, and subsequently those issues that deter economic performance and development. The countries surveyed were selected on the basis of a…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) James Thurlow;Peter Wobst
  • Countries and Regions Zambia
We thank the Department for International Development (DFID) for funding this research and for providing technical and logistical support during the project. We are grateful to Neil McCulloch from the Institute for Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex for the providing us with the cleaned household surveys that…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Cally Ardington and Murray Leibbrandt
This paper examines the impact of formality of employment on the utilisation of financial services, using data from the October 2000 Income and Expenditure Survey and the September 2000 Labour Force Survey. The presence of an employed member in the household is seen to be important for the utilisation of…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Robert Kappel, Jann Lay and Susan Steiner
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
This article illustrates changing growth regimes in Uganda from pro-poor growth in the 1990s to growth without poverty reduction, actually even a slight increase in poverty, after 2000. Not surprisingly, we find that good agricultural performance is the key determinant of direct pro-poor growth in the 1990s as well as…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Sandra Freire
The models measuring the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS are heterogeneous : each one relies on a specific theoretical background. Nevertheless, there are, at least, three main common limits to those approaches : the authors concentrate on the impact on the labour market ; they neglect the potential implications on the…

  • Year 2004
  • Organisation Centre for the Study of African EconomiesDepartment of EconomicsUniversity of Oxford
  • Publication Author(s) Neil Rankin, Mans Soderbom and Francis Teal
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
The poor performance of many African economies has been associated with low growth of exports in general and of manufacturing exports in particular. In this paper we draw on micro evidence of manufacturing firms in five African countries - Kenya, Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Nigeria - to investigate the…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Anders Danielson
  • Countries and Regions Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa)
Studying the relation between economic growth and income poverty reduction without taking changes in the distribution of income into consideration is like setting up Othello without Iago in the play. Without any further references to Shakespeare, this paper examines the relations between poverty levels, economic growth and changes in inequality…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) David Lam; Murray Leibbrandt; Vimal Ranchhod
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper provides a broad overview of the labor force activity of older workers in South Africa. We begin the paper with a discussion of important features of the social and economic environment that provide a background for the analysis. Drawing on excellent microdata, we then analyze the age profile…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Rashid M. Mfaume and Wilhelm Leonard
  • Countries and Regions Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa)
Small Business Entrepreneurship haves been seen as a hub in generating income for the majority of urban dwellers with no formal paid employment. In Tanzania, entry into small business entrepreneurship is usually not seen as a problem. One can start small business at any time and in any place. However,…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) David J Spielman
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Agricultural research and development (R&D) is critical to the improvement of incomes and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, several studies on agricultural R&D suggest that many countries in the region are unable to bring public and private sector assets and resources together as a means of advancing agricultural R&D. This…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Imraan Valodia and Myriam Velia
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
We begin by presenting an overview of manufacturing in the Durban area and report on the GDMA survey, highlighting the methodology and key objectives and findings of the survey. We then focus on the international trade issues, reporting on how firms in the GDMA are responding to trade liberalisation. We…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Thandi Phele; Simon Roberts; Ian Steuart
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper examines the impact of national developments and policies on the development of industry in Ekurhuleni. It assesses role of local government in industrial development in light of recent literature addressing agglomeration effects, industrial districts, and the development of local economic competencies and institutions. The analysis draws on recent…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Tsegaye Yilma Dessalegn;Ernst Berg; Thomas Berger
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
There is a general consensus that bad economic policies, among other factors, are to blame for the poor performance of economies in sub Saharan African (SSA). However, there is no similar consensus on the effect of economic reforms on poverty alleviation, a primary goal of any economy in the region.…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Wagayehu Bekele
  • Countries and Regions Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa)
The aim of this paper is to better understand farmers' perception of the relevance of different development intervention programs. Farmers' subjective ranking of agricultural problems and their preference for development intervention are elicited using a stated preference method. The factors influencing these preferences are determined using a random utility model.…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Babasanmi Babatope-Obasa; Michael Adebayo Adebiyi
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
In this study, we set out to empirically investigate the impact of interest rates and other macroeconomic factors on manufacturing performance in Nigeria using co-integration and an error correction mechanism (ECM) technique with annual time series covering the period between 1970 and 2002. Some statistical tools are employed to explore…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Dorrit Posel; James Fairburn; Frances Lund
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper re-examines the effect of the South African social pension on the labour supply of working-age adults using data from 1993. We take account of the fact that households may include non-resident members, and therefore that the pension may play a role in facilitating migration to work or look…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) DK Grover; Anteneh Temesgen
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The country had a real per capita GDP of less than US $100 in 1995, and over 60 per cent of its population lives in absolute poverty. The problem of rural poverty and underdeveloped agriculture are closely…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Espen Villanger
"The United States has played a leading role in shaping the World Bank's agenda, and Bank projects often support U.S. foreign policy goals. For example, the Bank is providing resources to assist in the transition of central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union from communist to market-basedsystems.…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Daniela Casale; Colette Muller; Dorrit Posel
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In this paper we investigate labour market trends in South Africa between October 1995 and March 2003. In particular, we evaluate the South African government's claim that over this period, the economy created two million net new jobs. Using the same household survey data as that used to generate official…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Afeikhena Jerome
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Despite the perceived role of efficient infrastructure as critical element for economic growth, poverty reduction and the attainment of the millennium development goals, there is clear evidence that the provision of infrastructure in Africa has been much below standard in terms of quantity and quality. Over the past decade, there…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Morne Oosthuizen; Haroon Bhorat
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Since 1994, the South African economy has undergone significant changes with the government implementing various policies aimed at redressing the injustices of the past, fleshing out the welfare system and improving competitiveness as South Africa becomes increasingly integrated into the global economy. These policies have, directly or indirectly, impacted on…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Channing Arndt; Kenneth Simler
  • Countries and Regions Mozambique
The "Cost of Basic Needs" (CBN) approach to drawing consumption based poverty lines is widely applied and lays credible claim to being the best practice for estimating poverty measures. Unfortunately, a growing mass of evidence indicates that poverty estimates obtained under the CBN approach are often demonstrably utility inconsistent. Here,…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Ron Sandrey; Dirk van Seventer
This study finds that export trade widened rather than deepened as a result of the CER trade agreement with Australia. Trade has expanded in those products that were not heavily traded prior to the agreement as opposed to an expansion of traditional-exports that were traded at the start of the…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Goran Djurfeldt; Rolf Larsson
  • Countries and Regions Southern African Development Community (SADC)
This paper deals with the importance of agricultural policy and technology for farmers' food security and market integration. We draw on data recently collected in interviews with over 3000 farmers in eight sub-Saharan African countries.2 The results indicate that the food production among African smallholders is highly responsive to increased…
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  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Gabriel Tati
  • Countries and Regions Swaziland
Why is poverty so pervasive in Swaziland despite substantial economic growth achieved through extreme economic openness over several years? Is poverty alleviation in Swaziland a more reachable goal than was in the past, as this country strives to restore rapid economic growth through AGOA facilitating greater insertion into the global…
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