Inequality and Economic Inclusion

Inequality and Economic Inclusion (55)

South Africa remains one of the most inequitable countries in the world, distinguished by unusually high levels of joblessness as well as inequalities in wages and asset ownership. TIPS work in this area has focused on:

  • How the structure of the economy affects unemployment, local economic development and economic opportunities. This work has considered the nature of dominant industries and value chains, competition, education and training systems, small enterprise, the informal sector and labour markets.
  • The effects of the spatial inequality that was entrenched under apartheid, both in terms of the persistence of profound differentials between the former “homelands” and the rest of the country as well as within urban areas, especially the metros. TIPS has looked at migrant labour in mining; rural development strategies; the agricultural value chain; and the scope for payment for environmental services to create rural employment.
  • Support for employment-creation programmes and in particular the Community Work Programme (CWP). This work has included advisory services on the scaling up of the CWP, facilitation of alignment between the Department of Cooperative Governance and other partner departments, and inputs into the monitoring and evaluation of the programme. 

See past projects

  • Year 2009
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Haroon Bhorat; Carlene van der Westhuizen; Toughedah Jacobs
South Africa has historically been ranked as one of the most unequal societies in the world, and while the country has experienced sustained positive economic growth since 1994, the impact of this growth on poverty, and particularly inequality, has been disappointing. Analysis using data from the 1995 and 2000 Income…

  • Year 2009
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The research and policy proposals from the process of reviewing the performance of existing government programmes targeting the second economy and developing an expanded strategy were presented to a 'Work in Progress' workshop in May 2008 and to a conference entitled 'Second Economy Strategy: Addressing Inequality and Economic Marginalisation', held…

  • Year 2009
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Paul Benjamin; Nicole Yazbek
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) a third of the global workforce is either unemployed or underemployed barely eking out a living through informal work; selfemployment or as wage workers involved in precarious employment. International competitive pressures have led to a restructuring of organizations toward decentralized production networks and…

  • Year 2009
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Lauren Royston
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The paper argues for a broad based access to property, broader than access to title allows, with the potential for wider, quicker and more sustained reach. It motivates for a place for tenure security in the second economy strategy as a means for securing access to property, a pre-condition for…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation Urban LandMark
  • Publication Author(s) Doreen Atkinson
The task is to reflect on the building of the second economy in small and medium sized towns. This involves a review of secondary sources, as well as an input on quantitative measures to support the main arguments. The paper should draw on: i) Comparative policies for small and medium-sized…
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  • Year 2008
  • Organisation Second Economy Strategy Project
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip;Ebrahim-Khalil Hassen
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
At the July 2007 Cabinet lekgotla, the Presidency was tasked with conducting a review of existing government programmes that target the 'second economy', in order to identify where programmes can be scaled up to achieve greater impacts, and where further innovation may be needed. The Review of Second Economy Programmes…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Glen Robbins For Urban LandMark
South Africa is continuing to urbanise, perhaps not as rapidly as some developing countries but certainly at a rate which has generated a considerable degree of policy anguish over its accompanying rising levels of urban poverty. The Presidency of the Republic of South Africa expressed concern that there is an…
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We conducted a partial sectoral analysis of the market for ecosystem goods and services in SouthAfrica by doing the following: We mapped the areas of high eco system productivity and poverty. By overlaying the two datasets, we identified the priority areas for developing markets for ecosystem goods andservices. We estimated…
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  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) CSIR For Urban LandMark
This report provides an analytical reflection on the provision of infrastructure services in urban areas, with the aim of enhancing the access of the poor in urban areas to these services. It commences by considering what is meant by “access” to services, pointing out that much more is involved than…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Urban LandMark
This report is based on work undertaken towards developing the urban component of a second economy strategy, as part of the Second Economy Project, an initiative of the Presidency. Within this project Urban LandMark (ULM) was appointed by Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS) to investigate the urban development component…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Lochner Marais
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Conceptualising the second economy No detailed process will be followed in order to define the concept second economy’. The Second Economy Strategy Project (2008:2) probably summarises it best: “In sum, the concept of the ‘second economy’ is being used as a metaphor to focus policy attention on continued inequality, disadvantage…
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  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Nisa Mammon;Kathryn Ewing;Jody Patterson For Urban LandMark
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper unpacks from a spatial perspective, the duality of urban contexts in South Africa that is of unprecedented opulence on the one hand and remarkable deprivation on the other, as stated by Sen (1999: xi). Although focused on the second economy as required by the terms of reference and…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) NB Ideas with Strategies for Change and Indego Consulting
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This document is part two of a three part report on employment intermediation. Part one provides an overview of the sector, internationally and nationally, and part three captures the recommendations for further work towards strengthening the sector. In this second part of that report, seven case studies of existing employment…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Overstrand Municipality
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The Local Labour Promotion Project (hereafter LLPP) has been developed internally within the Overstrand Municipality which is situated in the Overberg District of the Western Cape Province. The LLPP was developed initially in 2005 to deal with the high level of municipal services arrears owed by unemployed debtors in the…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Karen Harrison
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Siyakhula, or the Western Cape Bus Operators’ Transport Cooperative Ltd, operates within the bus sector of the transport industry. A brief description of the sector follows in order to contextualise the operations of the cooperative. The transport, storage and communications sector increased its share in real output growth in the…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Mathetha Mokonyama For Urban LandMark
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The aim of the paper is to articulate necessary state interventions to improve transport services for the urban poor in South Africa. The paper forms part of a larger study intended to inform a strategic response to the challenges of the “second economy” in the South African urban areas. The…
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  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) NB Ideas with Strategies for Change and Indego Consulting
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Unemployment is one of the biggest challenges facing South Africa. Growth has been inadequate, the skills level requirement of new jobs is continually rising, current skills among the workforce are low and inadequate numbers of low end, unskilled jobs are being created. Finding mechanisms to address this challenge is a…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Mark Misselhorn and Tanya Zack For Urban LandMark
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
CONTEXT This document is a response to the aspiration of National Treasury to define practical mechanisms which will enable emergency relief for informal settlements and associated urban economy interventions to rapidly occur on a national basis. This aspiration flows largely from a draft urban strategy for the second economy formulated…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Sarah Charlton For Urban LandMark
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper contributes to the urban component of the forthcoming ‘second economy’1 strategy. The brief called for a reflection on the issue of urban land use management (LUM), and extraction of the implications for the urban poor. For the most part the task involved a secondary analysis of work undertaken…
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  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) FEIKE
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Presently, deep-sea vessels fishing Hake under-catch their annual allocation by nearly 10,000 tons and it is claimed that this is because there is no basis on which to target by-catch once the allowable Hake quota has been caught. The following policy and regulatory issues would permit Horse Mackerel, which is…
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  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Sandy Lowitt
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This executive summary is not presented in the usual manner of summarising the findings of each chapter of the report. The complexity and detail covered in the report, and the nuances in the debates, makes such an option impossible. Rather, a brief overview of the key issues and approaches is…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) FEIKE
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In the 1980s, aquaculture, or fish farming, was in its infancy, globally. Today, it accounts for close to 50 million tons annually, making up nearly half of all fish products consumed. Of this, Africa has a 1% market share and South Africa accounts for about 1% of the African slice.…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Claire Vermaak; Marcel Kohler; Dr Bruce Rhodes
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Since 1994 the South African government has identified poverty alleviation as a key policy goal. This objective was formulated under the auspices of the Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) policy which has arguably had limited success (Hassan, 2001). In 2004 the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA)…

  • Year 2004
  • Publication Author(s) Peter Glick; David Sahn
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
AIDS has had its most devastating impacts in Africa and the prevalence of the disease continues to rise in most African countries. With a feasible vaccine still years away, reduction in risk behaviors remains the only way to reverse the epidemic. An obvious prerequisite for behavior change is that people…

  • Year 2006
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Albert Berry
Description In his paper, Albert Berry - professor of economics and director of the Latin American programme at the Centre for International Studies of the University of Toronto - identifies the impacts of globalisation and liberalisation on inequality. He finds that data deficiencies and a lack of in-depth analysis of…
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