Small Grant Research Papers

Economic, social and environmental consequences of the global crisis of sustainability are hindering growth and development, particularly in developing countries. In response to the awareness of a changing climate, and ratified commitments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve sustainability, South Africa has embraced decarbonising the transport sector, the second highest emitter of GHG emissions in the country. Beyond environmental sustainability, the high costs of importing crude oil or producing and refining these fuels, growing congestion and long commuting hours, means reforming the transport sector is a priority. Attaining sustainable transport systems requires a modal shift towards environmentally-compatible, energy-efficient and low-carbon vehicles, the promotion of public transport and non-motorised transport, as well as spatial planning to reduce travel distances for commuters.

While spatial planning and modal shifts present longer-term opportunities for transformation, this policy brief focuses on improving vehicle efficiencies, a suitable complementary option for transitioning to sustainable transport systems in the short term. The South African government should provide the necessary fiscal certainty and support to facilitate the uptake of gas-based and electric vehicles. These present low-carbon alternatives, to enhance energy efficiency and improve vehicle technologies, reduce reliance on imported crude oil and decrease harmful emissions while creating and supporting local industry in the process.

  • Year 2018
  • Publication Author(s) Bhavna Deonarain, TIPS Researcher: Sustainable Growth
Published in Policy Briefs

This policy paper reviews the valuation, protection and management of nature in South Africa. It forms part of a series of papers aimed at providing a barometer of South Africa’s transition to sustainable development. 

  • Year 2018
  • Organisation TIPS and GEC
  • Publication Author(s) Shakespear Mudombi
  • Countries and Regions South Africa

UNLOCKING GREEN JOBS IN SOUTH AFRICA

The Unlocking Green Jobs: A Catalytic Intervention was a two-year initiative and collaboration between the World Wide Fund for Nature, South Africa (WWF-SA) and Trade & Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS). Published reports include a synthesis report, Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention, which summarises the findings and three three case studies.

The reports were produced with the financial assistance of the WWF Nedbank Green Trust and Agence Française de Développement (AFD).

Main report

Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention - synthesis report

Case studies

Essential Amathole: A case study of unlocking green jobs in the bioprospecting sector

Protecting and unlocking jobs through water stewardship: A case study Linked to the Umbogintwini Industrial Complex, Ethekwini

Unlocking and retaining jobs in the alien vegetation added value chain through industrial symbiosis: Case study on wood pellets

Published in Green Economy
AGENDA

9:30 - 9:45: Opening and Welcome

9:45 - 12:00: Presentations and discussion of research findings

Global trends in the circular economy: Experience from developing countries - Nilgün Tas (UNIDO)

South Africa's experience with industrial symbiosis - Henry Nuwarinda, National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA)

Tea

Advancing the development of biomaterials in South Africa - Chistopher Wood and Bhavna Deonarain (TIPS)

Fostering the alien vegetation added value chain through industrial symbiosis - Nicola Jenkin (Pinpoint Sustainability)

12:00 - 13:00 Discussion

13:00: Lunch 

BACKGROUND

A global transition towards sustainable development is currently underway. A key aspect of this transition is to shift from a linear model of development, based on production, use and disposal, to a circular economy.  A circular economy aims to build closed-loop systems relying on reuse, remanufacturing and recycling. Opportunities abound at the household, commercial, industrial and natural resource management levels. As with all transitions, numerous challenges remain. This Development Dialogue aims to discuss the interplay between industrial development and the circular economy, looking at how South Africa, and more broadly developing economies, can harness opportunities arising from the circular economy to foster economic development, support social progress and preserve environmental resources. 

RSVP by email: natasha@tips.org.za

  • Date Friday, 07 September 2018
  • Time 9.30-13.00
  • Venue TIPS Boardroom, 234 Lange St, Nieuw Muckleneuk, Pretoria
  • Main Speakers HOSTED BY TIPS AND GREEN ECONOMY COALITION (GEC)
  • For enquiries or to register please contact natasha@tips.org.za

UNLOCKING GREEN JOBS IN SOUTH AFRICA

The Unlocking Green Jobs: A Catalytic Intervention was a two-year initiative and collaboration between the World Wide Fund for Nature, South Africa (WWF-SA) and Trade & Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS). Published reports include a synthesis report, Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention, which summarises the findings and three three case studies.

The reports were produced with the financial assistance of the WWF Nedbank Green Trust and Agence Française de Développement (AFD).

The Essential Amathole case study focuses on the bioprospecting strategy, one of two components in the National Biodiversity Economy Strategy. Th bioprospecting strategy aims to grow the industry by 10% a year, off a 2014 baseline of R1.5 billion. The number of jobs to be created is not described in the strategy itself, but the aggregate target for the biodiversity economy is 300 000 jobs. This research provided a quantitative modelling that allowed more precise estimation of the total number of hectares that would need to be cleared of invasive alien plants, and planted, harvested and beneficiated through the extraction of essential oils (a highly profitable and labour-intensive strategy) to create these jobs.

Main report

Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention - synthesis report

Other case studies

Protecting and unlocking jobs through water stewardship: A case study Linked to the Umbogintwini Industrial Complex, Ethekwini

Unlocking and retaining jobs in the alien vegetation added value chain through industrial symbiosis: Case study on wood pellets

 

  • Year 2018
  • Organisation WWF South Africa and TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Daryl McLean (Rhodes University, Environmental Learning Research Centre); Shakespear Mudombi (TIPS)
Published in Green Economy

UNLOCKING GREEN JOBS IN SOUTH AFRICA

The Unlocking Green Jobs: A Catalytic Intervention was a two-year initiative and collaboration between the World Wide Fund for Nature, South Africa (WWF-SA) and Trade & Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS). Published reports include a synthesis report, Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention, which summarises the findings and three three case studies. The reports were produced with the financial assistance of the WWF Nedbank Green Trust and Agence Française de Développement.

Recent research by the United Nations on water and jobs that estimates that three out of four jobs in the global workforce are heavily or moderately dependant on water. Constrained or expensive water supply is therefore a significant threat to existing jobs. However, managing water resources may also have the potential to create jobs as the value of water increases. This review explores both the significance of jobs at risk in South Africa and the potential to protect and create jobs through water stewardship. To better understand the variables and how they may impact a particular situation a case study that linked business, government and civil society was identified and examined. This case study is located within the Mbokodweni catchment in the southern part of the eThekwini Metro in KwaZulu-Natal. It explores the interaction between a number of community groups involved in water catchment management (and other socio-ecological initiatives).

Main report

Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention - synthesis report

Other case studies

Essential Amathole: A case study of unlocking green jobs in the bioprospecting sector

Unlocking and retaining jobs in the alien vegetation added value chain through industrial symbiosis: Case study on wood pellets

 

  • Year 2018
  • Organisation WWF South Africa and TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Mike Ward (Creating Sustainable Value) and Shakespear Mudombi (TIPS)
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Published in Green Economy

UNLOCKING GREEN JOBS IN SOUTH AFRICA

The Unlocking Green Jobs: A Catalytic Intervention was a two-year initiative and collaboration between the World Wide Fund for Nature, South Africa (WWF-SA) and Trade & Industrial Policy Strategies (TIPS). Published reports include a synthesis report, Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention, which summarises the findings and three three case studies. The reports were produced with the financial assistance of the WWF Nedbank Green Trust and Agence Française de Développement (AFD).

Invasive alien plants are a serious environmental challenge in South Africa, impacting on biodiversity and water supply. A set of national strategies for clearing these and beneficiating the biomass have been implemented over the past decade, with mixed success in job creation, enterprise development and poverty alleviation. This case study explores the reasons for success and failure. In particular, the case study highlights the potential to create jobs in relation to wood-pelleting and eco-matting, and suggests there are wider social arguments that should be taken into consideration when evaluating policy options for the beneficiation of alien biomass.

Main report

Unlocking green jobs in South Africa: A catalytic intervention - synthesis report

Other case studies

Essential Amathole: A case study of unlocking green jobs in the bioprospecting sector

Protecting and unlocking jobs through water stewardship: A case study Linked to the Umbogintwini Industrial Complex, Ethekwini

 

  • Year 2018
  • Organisation WWF South Africa and TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Nicola Jenkin (Pinpoint Sustainability) and Shakespear Mudombi (TIPS)
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Published in Green Economy

This paper assesses the state of play in South Africa at each level of policymaking, relying on a policy pyramid approach. The policy pyramid framework aims to merge both top-down and bottom-up approaches of policymaking in a dynamic and iterative fashion. At all levels, this method suggests a cooperative governance framework, gathering government and other social partners (business, labour and civil society), based on constant policy dialogue, engagement and co-development. Each level then plays a complementary role in the design and implementation of evidence-based, effective and ambitious policies.

Based on this approach, the paper conducts a diagnostic of the situation in South Africa and formulates targeted recommendations.

  • Year 2017
  • Organisation TIPS and GEC
  • Publication Author(s) Gaylor Montmasson-Clair
  • Countries and Regions South Africa

A global transition to sustainable development is under way as a response to multiple environmental crises, including the widespread impacts of climate change. South Africa has embraced the shift to a green economy to attain inclusive, equitable and sustainable growth and development. The desire to transition to a green economy has been declared at the highest political level, and the articulation of the green economy agenda is evident in the South African policy framework.

From a trade and industry perspective, the transition materialises through two complementary streams: the development of new, green industries and the greening of existing, traditional industries. Within this framework, this report focuses on the development of new trade opportunities for green industries in South Africa both for import substitution and for exports. The main objectives are to identify and assess economic sectors that offer trade opportunities from the perspective of green industrial development; inform a subsequent sector-specific assessment of opportunities at the green industry and trade nexus; and provide recommendations for policymakers on how to further harness the identified opportunities in key sectors.

The report is published as part of the Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) – an initiative by the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) in partnership with the South African Government (the Department of Environmental Affairs, the Department of Trade and Industry, the Department of Science and Technology, and the Economic Development Department).

The report was authored by TIPS, which led the research process, collected data, drafted the report, and managed stakeholder consultations. The research team comprised: Gaylor Montmasson-Clair (Senior Economist: Sustainable Growth), Christopher Wood (Economist), Shakespear Mudombi (Economist (Sustainable Growth) and Bhavna Deonarain (Researcher: sustainable Growth).

In addition to the Main Report, a four-page Overview is also available to download.

                   

  • Year 2018
  • Organisation Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE)
  • Publication Author(s) TIPS
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Published in Green Economy

South Africa’s economic growth relies strongly on resource and energy-intensive sectors, which worsens the pressure on the environment and exacerbates the threat of climate change (Montmasson-Clair, 2012). The country is also grappling with high income inequality, unemployment and poverty levels. Economic growth has not been inclusive (Mayer et al, 2011). Related to this is the limited inclusion and participation of the youth, in the broader development of the country. Youth is defined in South Africa as people in the age category of 14 to 35 years (NYDA, 2011). The National Youth Development Agency (NYDA, 2011) highlighted the plight of the youth in South Africa as characterised by: low economic participation, low levels of education and skills development, poor health and well-being, and low levels of civic participation and social cohesion. Given this background, how can development be made inclusive? And how can the green economy be used for inclusion of youth and sustainable development, not only in South Africa but also in the rest of the continent.

  • Year 2017
  • Publication Author(s) Shakespear Mudombi, TIPS Economist: Sustainable Growth
Published in Policy Briefs

 Session 9: Unpacking the water-energy-food nexus

  • Year 2017
  • Organisation Wits School of Governance
  • Publication Author(s) Mike Muller
  • Countries and Regions South Africa

Session 10: Sub-national experiences and sustainability 

  • Year 2017
  • Organisation The Innovation Hub
  • Publication Author(s) Ndidzulafhi Nenngwekhulu
  • Countries and Regions South Africa

Session 9: Energy Utilisation

  • Year 2016
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Gaylor Montmsson-Clair
  • Countries and Regions South Africa

A global benchmarking of policy instruments for effective climate change mitigation demonstrates the need for a mix of policy measures. The optimal policy package is characterised by the complementarity of its policy components, and the recognition of context: the appropriateness of the mix of measures varies from country to country depending on unique sets of climate change challenges as welll as other national objectives. South Africa is considering a number of policy options for climate mitigation: a carbon tax, desired emissions reductions outcomes, and required energy management plans. To determine the optimal policy package, an assessment of the range of policy instruments is needed, particularly in understanding how these instruments can be used together and in which cases they are redundant or suboptimal and burdensome.

  • Year 2015
  • Publication Author(s) Georgina Ryan
Published in Policy Briefs

Session 8: Agricultural value chains in the region

This paper expands a case study by Emet Consulting for the South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) in 2014. The case study (Regulatory Constraints to the Development of a Fuel Ethanol Market in SADC) was a component of a project funded by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), through its ProSPECT project, investigating the most significant constraints to doing business in the SADC region. Through the project GIZ and SAIIA aimed to provide concrete examples of constraints to doing business in the region, as well as potential solutions. The overall objective of the research was to reduce these business constraints by facilitating a dialogue in the SADC region on their removal, thereby allowing the private sector to take advantage of the opportunities offered by regional integration.

  • Year 2015
  • Organisation Emet Consulting / ACCORD Development Consulting
  • Publication Author(s) Wolfe Braude
  • Countries and Regions South Africa, Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Session 6: A regional approach to energy resources
 
This study develops a reliability assessment method of wind resource using optimum reservoir target power operations that maximises the firm generation of integrated wind and hydropower. This model is applied on the reservoir storages and hydropower system in the Zambezi river basin to demonstrate how storage reservoirs could be used to offset wind power intermittence in South Africa subjected to different physical and policy constraints. The result obtained indicates that high regulation of wind and hydro can be achieved as a result of combined operation and showed an increased level of wind penetration in South Africa's power system over the reference scenario. The result also indicated a reduced level of coal power utilization and less cycling requirement. This will have a positive outcome in terms contributing to South Africa's goal towards reducing greenhouse gas emission and the efforts to build green energy supply and resilience to the impacts of climate change

  • Year 2015
  • Publication Author(s) Yohannes Gebretsadik; Charles Fant; Kenneth Strzepek
  • Countries and Regions South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Policy interventions at national and international scales are driving efforts to simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide sustainable socio-economic improvements. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one such policy instrument implemented through the Kyoto Protocol under the international climate change regime. Questions remain particularly around how socio-economic development can be achieved and, more importantly, how these policy approaches play out on the ground in the lives of those they affect.

This paper presents a case study, focusing on the impact of a skills development component of the Kuyasa CDM project, in Cape Town, South Africa. It investigates two specific aspects of the project, highlighting challenges for CDM projects to achieve their desired socio-economic outcomes. Findings indicate that formal accreditation is not, in all cases, found to be beneficial to the lives of those living in Kuyasa. At the same time, many benefits are drawn from the experience of productive work but these are not acknowledged. Implications for expectation management and more appropriate interventions are outlined, including understanding the multi-dimensional impact of the experience of training and employment. Finally, reflections are provided on how CDM projects could contribute to effective skills development.

This paper falls under the TIPS Small Grant Research Papers annual Peet du Plooy Small Grant for Sustainability, launched in 2013, given for economic research on issues pertaining to the green economy and climate change.

  • Year 2015
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Anna James

Policy Paper prepared for the Economic Development Department and the Department of Trade and Industry

The impact of electricity price increases on the competitiveness of selected mining sector and smelting value chains in South Africa: Has it incentivised mining-related companies to invest in renewable energy, cogeneration and energy efficiency?

This research project was jointly commissioned by the Economic Development Department (EDD) and the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti). The Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) was tasked with implementing the project as part of a partnership to support the South African government's green growth planning efforts. TIPS was the primary research partner and service provider. This project is the result of the collaboration of all of these institutions.

The South African government's Inter-departmental Green Growth Committee, chaired by EDD, served as the project steering committee for this research. A multi-stakeholder Technical Reference Group was also established to offer inputs on various drafts of the report.

This policy paper represents a condensed version of an earlier report, which was the result of extensive fieldwork and interviews with stakeholders across the selected mining value chains. The research team comprised Reena Das Nair, Dinga Fatman, Evans Chinembiri, Gaylor Montmasson-Clair, Georgina Ryan and Wendy Nyakabawo of TIPS. Gaylor Montmasson-Clair and Georgina Ryan were the lead authors of the policy paper. Alison Goldstuck and Katlego Moilwa were GGGI contributing authors. 

Although not directly associated with the transition to a green growth path, recent trends in South Africa's electricity supply industry, which has been characterised by energy supply problems since a load shedding crisis in 2008 and drastic price increases (i.e. a trebling of the average electricity price from 2009/2010 to 2017/2018), provide an opportunity to investigate the shift to a greener path. Using these developments as an entry point, this paper investigates the impact of electricity price increases on the competitiveness of mining-related companies and the mitigation measures which have been implemented by various firms in the four most important mining value chains in South Africa, namely platinum, gold, iron ore and coal. Particular attention is paid to the role that electricity price increases and energy security concerns have played in fostering investments by mining-related firms in renewable energy and energy efficiency.

For any enquiries related to the report that are relevant to the dti and EDD, please contact Christian Prins, Economist (macro economic policy), EDD, at cprins@economic.gov.za.

  • Year 2014
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Gaylor Montmasson-Clair; Georgina Ryan
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Published in Energy

This report is part of the project called the “Social Dialogue for Green and Decent Jobs. South Africa - European Dialogue on Just Transition” funded by EuropeAid's budget line SA/21.060200-01-08. The project has been cofunded by Sustainlabour. The Congress of South African Trade Unions – COSATU acts as partner organization.

Overall it is clear that South Africa has a very large number of policies and strategies in place on the Green Economy. This report   
includes an analysis of national-level policy and strategies. The research was carried out by TIPS and Ana Belén Sánchez and Laura Martín from Sustainlabour. 

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Sustainlabour
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Published in Green Economy

In 2012, South Africa remains faced with the triple developmental challenge of unemployment, poverty and inequality. In addition, the country's current economic growth model is heavily resource and energy-intensive, aggravating pressures on the environment and the threat of climate change. The transition to a green economy, stemming from the concept of sustainable development, has been internationally recognised as a ground-breaking way forward, combining economic development, social welfare and environmental protection.
South Africa is in a unique position to exploit the emergence of green economic development in the world. The country's renewable resources abundance (solar and wind predominantly) and biodiversity positions it to play a leading role in the Southern African region and in Africa. In addition, if supported by an enabling environment, green sectors have the potential to foster South African growth and employment, as well as the shift to sustainable development.

  • Year 2012
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Gaylor Montmasson-Clair
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