Inequality and Economic Inclusion

Inequality and Economic Inclusion (55)

South Africa remains one of the most inequitable countries in the world, distinguished by unusually high levels of joblessness as well as inequalities in wages and asset ownership. TIPS work in this area has focused on:

  • How the structure of the economy affects unemployment, local economic development and economic opportunities. This work has considered the nature of dominant industries and value chains, competition, education and training systems, small enterprise, the informal sector and labour markets.
  • The effects of the spatial inequality that was entrenched under apartheid, both in terms of the persistence of profound differentials between the former “homelands” and the rest of the country as well as within urban areas, especially the metros. TIPS has looked at migrant labour in mining; rural development strategies; the agricultural value chain; and the scope for payment for environmental services to create rural employment.
  • Support for employment-creation programmes and in particular the Community Work Programme (CWP). This work has included advisory services on the scaling up of the CWP, facilitation of alignment between the Department of Cooperative Governance and other partner departments, and inputs into the monitoring and evaluation of the programme. 

See past projects

  • Year 2016
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Neva Makgetla; Saul Levin
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The roots of the industrial conflict in the North West province platinum mining belt in 2012 that led to the Marikana massacre cannot be found in the normal narrative of low wages and circular migrant labour entrenched under apartheid. Although South African miners earned far less than their equals in…

  • Year 2014
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Neva Makgetla
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In 2014, South Africa remained one of the most unequal countries in the world, an outlier by global standards in terms of both overall inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient and levels of joblessness. For proponents of industrialisation as central to long-term development, this situation raises two questions. First,…

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In the context of a global jobs crisis, there is renewed interest in the role of public employment in providing work opportunities. This context has also seen a range innovation in public employment, with new forms of work and new approaches to implementation and delivering different kinds of outcomes. The…

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Evans Chinembiri; Mbofholowo Tsedu
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper looks at the strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies in capturing the kinds of local economic development impacts from the CWP. It aims to fill the gap of methodologies available for measuring economic multipliers in a local economy. (The Employment Promotion Programme (EPP) Research)

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation University of Cape Town Graduate School of Development Policy and Practice
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
After the Great Depression in the 1930s, part of the recovery in the United States of America relied upon a massive programme of public works, under the Works Progress Administration. Its impact was not just as a stimulus; it also provided a focus of social participation and inclusion. Yet, in…

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Centre for Democratising Information
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
A key part of the motivation to potentially scale up the CWP to a million participants included a proposed strategy of support to schools. This research looks at the impact of CWP's schools support at a sample of schools that have received such support. (The Employment Promotion Programme (EPP) Research)  

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Centre for Democratising Information.
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This qualitative study assessed the impact of the Community Work Programme (CWP) on the capabilities of participants and communities. It showed the programme had significantly expanded participants capability set and had contributed to improving both individual and community wellbeing. (The Employment Promotion Programme (EPP) Research)

  • Year 2013
  • Organisation Development Policy Research Unit
  • Publication Author(s) DPRU
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This paper looks at the role that potential poverty-reducing impact that the CWP could have is expanded. While acknowledging that there are significant non-monetary impacts, the focus is on measuring the impact that earning the CWP wage would have on household poverty and inequality. (The Employment Promotion Programme (EPP) Research)

  • Year 2012
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Gaylor Montmasson-Clair
In 2012, South Africa remains faced with the triple developmental challenge of unemployment, poverty and inequality. In addition, the country's current economic growth model is heavily resource and energy-intensive, aggravating pressures on the environment and the threat of climate change. The transition to a green economy, stemming from the concept…

  • Year 2012
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Phillip
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In the face of a long-standing unemployment crisis that increasingly threatens social and economic stability, employment has at last taken centre stage in South African policy, and with this, a focus on the structural constraints on employment creation within the economy. The New Growth Path, approved by Cabinet in November…

  • Year 2012
  • Publication Author(s) Fiona Tregenna; Mfanafuthi Tsela
Unemployment and earnings inequality in South Africa have declined in recent years, while the trend in overall income inequality is unclear. Inequality and unemployment both remain at extremely high levels by historical and international standards. There has been a very close relationship between trends in unemployment and earnings inequality in…

  • Year 2012
  • Organisation TEBA; Lima
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The Community Work Programme (CWP) was implemented as a pilot programme in Bushbuckridge and several other municipalities in 2009. The programme is essentially an employment safety net employing 2 200 people in Bushbuckridge within four sectors of community work, these being food security, palliative care, community infrastructure refurbishment and teacher…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Marlese von Broembsen
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Patrick Sathorar acts as a marketing consultant for a group of 25-30 HIV-positive women in Nyanga, Cape Town. They produce textile and beaded products and Patrick facilitates their participation in the formal market by sourcing and negotiating contracts for them. Patrick’s role comprises the following: first, he meets with a…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Sandy Lowitt
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Improving small, marginalised producers access to modern markets has increasingly been accepted as an important element in South African policy debates on improving the employment, income and livelihood opportunities for such producers. The importance of market access arises because in the absence of such access, these producers are restricted to…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation Thutong Training and Development
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The findings clearly answer the question of how beneficiaries have been impacted by CWP. The findings show that the beneficiaries are pleased with the quality of services that are provided through the CWP programme such as home based care, cleaning of cre?ches and teachers assistants etc. It becomes evident that…

  • Year 2011
  • Publication Author(s) Megan Cochrane
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Aim: The Community Work Programme (CWP) is an initiative of the State President's office which is designed to create an employment safety net in rural areas. The aim of this investigation is to study whether or not the CWP has made a positive impact on the lives of its participants…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Miriam Altman (HSRC) ; Carmel Marock (Singizi Consulting)
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Youth unemployment is extremely high in South Africa, approximately double the national rate. While this is not uncommon internationally, it poses a special problem in South Africa where at least half of young school leavers are unlikely to find work before the age of 24. In many other countries, the…
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  • Year 2011
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Ebrahim-Khalil Hassen
The promise of asset-based approaches to poverty, as well as its limitations can be summarised with reference to the popular idiom: “teach a person to fish, rather than giving him a fish”. If the idiom were a development programme or project, it would aim to undertake two interventions (i.e. 1.…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In the face of a long-standing unemployment crisis that increasingly threatens social and economic stability, employment has at last taken centre stage in South African policy, and with this, focus is shifting to the structural constraints on employment creation within the economy. The New Growth Path, approved by Cabinet in…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation PLAAS
  • Publication Author(s) Michael Aliber
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
This case study provides a comparative analysis of two different initiatives designed to promote the smallholder sector in metropolitan Cape Town. The City of Cape Town has developed an urban agriculture policy and initiated a joint venture between itself, the Provincial Department of Agriculture and private sector partners to put…

  • Year 2011
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions India, South Africa
What if unemployed people in South Africa had a right – a real right – to a minimum level of regular work on decent terms? In 2005, India passed a law guaranteeing rural households up to 100 days of work per annum, at minimum wage rates. Over 55 million households…

  • Year 2010
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions India, South Africa
What if unemployed people in South Africa had a right – a real right – to a minimum level of regular work, on decent terms?   In 2005, India passed a law guaranteeing rural households up to 100 days of work per annum, at minimum wage rates. Over 55 million…

  • Year 2010
  • Organisation International Labour Office - Geneva
  • Publication Author(s) Maikel Lieuw-Kie-Song; Kate Philip
Description Unemployment and other employment-related problems do not occur only in times of crisis. As observed by the ILO, there was a Jobs Crisis before the financial crisis, a structural unemployment problem as a result of jobless growth in many areas of the world. Investment in infrastructure development can play an…

  • Year 2010
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Kate Philip
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
The OECD held a one-day workshop in Paris in May 2010 to present the findings of a series of papers commissioned on this topic from Brazil, India, China and South Africa. Kate Philip was there. For South Africans attending the OECD conference, watching the comparative slides on global trends flashing…
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  • Year 2009
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) The Corporate Strategy and Industrial Development Research Programme (CSID); School of Economics and Business Sciences, University of Witwatersrand
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Street trading is the most common type of informal self-employment activity in South Africa. Traders sell a range of products such as fruits and vegetables, cooked food, new and used clothing, cosmetics, footwear, dvds, “public” telephone services and mobile phone accessories. Most traders operate from stalls or tables in market…

  • Year 2009
  • Organisation TIPS
  • Publication Author(s) Norma Tregurtha
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Agriculture plays a unique and multifaceted role in the South African economy. While it contributes less than three percent to the country’s GDP, it provides almost 10 percent of the country’s formal sector employment. The sector has, according to all measures, relatively large linkage effects with the rest of the…

  • Year 2009
  • Organisation PLAAS
  • Publication Author(s) Michael Aliber; Mompati Baiphethi; Rick de Satge; Jonathan Denison; Tim Hart; Peter Jacobs and Wim van Averbeke; with Rauri Alcock; Mike Antwi; Abenet Belete; Ben Cousins; Larry Field; Irvine Mariga; Patrick Masika; Simeon Materechera; David Mayson; Nomakhaya Monde and Barbara Tapela
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Within the ambit of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa, government is leading a process to define a Second Economy Strategy. One of the opportunities that has been identified is the agricultural sector, in particular fostering a larger number of smallholder agriculturalists. The study seeks to identify…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation NB Ideas In association with Indego Consulting and Strategies for Change
  • Publication Author(s) TIPS
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
Unemployment is one of the biggest challenges facing South Africa. Growth has been inadequate, the skills level requirement of new jobs is continually rising, current skills among the workforce are low and inadequate numbers of low end, unskilled jobs are being created. Finding mechanisms to address this challenge is a…

  • Year 2008
  • Organisation Urban LandMark
  • Publication Author(s) Monty Narsoo
  • Countries and Regions South Africa
In discussing the relationship between governance and inclusivity this paper’s central argument is that unless there is an ability to build a responsive government at all spheres than there is no connection between the two. The ability of the state to respond to the citizenry requires that it can match…
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